2/3 wheelers

In 2005, 80% of the global fleet of motorised two-wheelers (2Ws) could be found in Asia. Over the years, ownership rates of motorised two-wheelers have been increasing in many Southeast Asian countries. They are used especially, but not exclusively, by low and medium-income groups, and often fill the gaps in urban transport systems. In fact, the growing 2W-share can be explained by an ongoing decline of public transport and bicycle use (EMBARQ, 2014). Two-wheelers are not only used for private, but also for commercial transport in many ASEAN cities and even serve for public transport purposes as for example in Bangkok.

Besides CO2 emissions, two-wheelers can constitute “the prime source of urban air pollution” due to the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (UNEP/ KJAER, 2013). In many Asian cities, motorcycles are responsible for up to 40% of PM and CO2, 50% of carbon monoxide (CO), and 70% of VOCs (MECA, 2014).


Despite their significant contributions to CO2 emissions and air pollution, two-wheelers have long been neglected by many policy makers on national but also urban level and were being perceived as an intermediate mode of transport between non-motorised transport and car ownership. This comes along with safety concerns as another common argument why two-wheelers have been rather neglected than being perceived as one of the main transport modes in Asia. In light of the inevitable rise in emissions, promoting the energy efficiency of 2Ws in ASEAN is imperative for achieving low-carbon transport as envisaged by the ASEAN Transport Strategic Plan (KLTSP) 2016-2025, the Paris Agreement and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which have been universally agreed upon by all ASEAN states in 2015.


TCC is strongly emphasising to include two-wheelers into energy efficiency and climate change policies such as fuel economy measures. Furthermore, TCC is promoting an integrated approach, meaning not only to improve existing two-wheeler fleets but also consider the electrification of two-wheelers as a policy option. TCC offers:

  • Support, and provides expertise in order to overcome existing economic, technological and socio-cultural barriers associated with a transition towards an energy-efficient 2W-landscape.
  • We organise workshops and participate in regional and national transport events. We can help to facilitate access to international donors and funding options for the deployment of E2Ws, if need be.



Ms. Julia Nagel